Linguistics Review List

Phonetics and Phonology (easy):

  1. IPA chart.
  2. Midsagittal diagram.

Morphology and Syntax (Midterm is a good exercise):

  1. Morpheme boundaries with a word.
  2. Whether the morphemes have multiple allomorphs.
  3. What meaning each morpheme/word corresponds to.
  4. Positions the various syntactic constituents and categories have within a sentence
  5. Translate other languages into English and vice versa.


  1. Identify various kinds of meanings.
  2. How implicatures are generated by the Gricean Maxims.

Sign Language:

  1. Similarities and difference between sign language and spoken language.
  2. Concepts, history, and culture of sign languages.

Language changes:

  1. Classify different types of semantics changes.
  2. The basic methodology for how we can work backward to make educated guesses about the structure of older forms of language (Proto-language).
  3. The Indo-European language family.
  4. Basic terms about writing systems, as well as their general historical development.


  1. How and why languages vary.
  2. Some of the broader variational patterns in general North American English and Canadian English.

Language Endangerment:

  1. How and why languages die.
  2. The importance of documenting and revitalizing languages.
  3. Tools to document and revitalize languages.
  4. ajor plot points, themes, and facts from The Linguists.

Join the conversation


  1. Ambiguity
    Structural ambiguity
    Example: The hunter saw the lion with her binoculars.
    Example: unpackable
    Lexical ambiguity: because an individual word has multiple meanings.
    Referential ambiguity.
    Pragmatics & Semantics:
    Semantics is concerned with literal meaning of words and how they combine to give literal meaning of phrases and sentences.
    Pragmatics is concerned with non-literal meanings, especially those that arise in ordinary conversation.

  2. 1. voiceless (except glottal) stops at the beginning of words or stressed syllables -> aspirated. But if followed by an approximant, the approximant become voiceless. That’s it.

    2. voiceless stops at the end of a syllable -> a glottal stop will be added before them. For some speakers, they will be replaced by the glottal stop.

    3. The nasal stops and alveolar approximant (m, n, n(velar), r, l) preceded by a consonant and not followed by a vowel -> will be syllabic. (add a ‘.’ in the bottom of the symbol) or sometimes transcribed as [ə] before the consonant. Syllabic [r̩/ər] is often transcribed by the special vowel symbols [ɝ].

    4. The lateral approximant is velarized when not followed by a vowel. [pʰæɫ] pal, [ɛɫʔk] elk, etc. And it will also be syllabic if it is preceded by a consonant as well: [æpɫ]̩ apple.

    5. Alveolar stops become flaps [ɾ] (oral: n) and [ɾ]̃ (nasal: t, d) between two vowels (or syllabic consonants) if the second vowel is unstressed: [læɾr]̩ latter/ladder, [mæɾr̃ ]̩ manner, etc.

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